User Level: 

Drupal 8 Shortcuts have a few different permissions that can be applied, including the permission for a user to select their own shortcut set.

There is no way, out of the box, to assign a shortcut set to a particular role, however. We would like to be able to do this to provide a less confusing, limited set of administrative links to our group users.

To do this, we use the Shortcut Per Role module.

Click on an image to make it bigger.
D8 - Working With Structure - Shortcuts - Navigation

1. Navigate to Shortcut Configuration

Go to Admin Menu > Configuration > User Interface > Shortcuts.

D8 - Working With Structure - Shortcuts - Shortcut Per Role Tab

2. Go to Shortcuts Per Role Screen

From the Shortcuts screen:

Click the Shortcuts Per Role tab.

D8 - Working With Structure - Shortcuts - Select Shortcut Per Role

3. Apply a Shortcut

On the Assign Shortcuts for Role screen:

Authenticated User select field = select the new shortcut set.

Leave all others set to Default.

Click the Save Configuration button.

D8 - Working With Structure - Shortcuts - New Shortcut Set

4. Check Shortcuts

Open a private/incognito browsing session and go to your site.

Log in to the site as a user with the appropriate role.

Click the Shortcuts link in the Admin Toolbar.

The new Shortcut Set will appear.